Claiming to be a direct descendant of Túpac Amaru I, the last Sapa Inca, executed by the Spanish in the sixteenth century, José Gabriel Condorcanqui triggered a sedition, which will be the most important of the revolts anticolonial occurred in Spanish America during the eighteenth century. This revolt, nicknamed "Great Rebellion", took place in the viceroyalty of Peru and in the viceroyalty of Río de la Plata (subdivisions of the Spanish Empire) and was triggered the November 4 1780 by the capture and subsequent execution of the corregidor Antonio from Arriaga.
Kuraka (native administrator) de Surimana, Tungasuca et Pampamarca, José Gabriel Condorcanqui He had built a fortune by exploiting his estates and trading. Having so much Spanish ancestry, or rather criollos (he was indeed marquis Oropesa.), that Indian, he was actually a Métis personality. If, after having been raised to his 12 years by a Criollo priest, Antonio López de Sosa, and then attended San Francisco College of Borja in Cuzco, he largely embraced, for a large part of his life, the European culture Criollo, mastering Latin and wearing refined Spanish clothing, he will later focus on dressing up as an Inca nobleman and actively using the Quechua Indian language in his daily life and future proclamations, and will struck by excommunication by the Catholic Church.
He was the first to claim liberty for all America and to want to free him from any guardianship, be it from Spain or from his monarch, which implied in his eyes not only political emancipation, but also the elimination of the various modes of exploitation of the Indians in the corregimientos - mining, the distribution of the goods (distribution), work chores (obrajes) - and the abolition of various excessive taxes, such as alcabala and internal customs duties (November 14 1780). In addition, for the first time in America, he decreed the abolition of black slavery (November 16 1780). Its revolutionary movement, which represented a veritable tipping point, led the colonial authorities to shelve the class of indigenous aristocrats, which were still very small, and to reinforce the repression against the Andean society for fear that something such a thing could never happen again.
The movement failed and Túpac Amaru He will be publicly quartered and beheaded in 1781 in Cuzco. Cependant, il devint par la suite une figure mythique de la lutte péruvienne pour l’indépendance et pour la reconnaissance des droits des indigènes, et sera reconnu comme le fondateur de l’identité nationale péruvienne. His figure and action have inspired and continue to inspire many past and present Amerindian movements, and have played a central symbolic role in the Juan regime Velasco Alvarado and between 1968 1975. Since then, José Gabriel Condorcanqui est solidement ancré dans l’imaginaire populaire que les Péruviens et les Boliviens ont su entre-temps se réapproprier.